Structure of a Dissertation

dissertation writing

To be clear, there is not one way to write a dissertation. That’s because there is not one dissertation. Instead, every single school you’ll go to will have different rules and guidelines about how your dissertation will be structured.

For that reason, whatever you read in an article like this needs to be taken with a grain of salt. You’d be better off looking at the specifications outlined on your school’s website to know the exact ins and outs of your dissertation.

Nonetheless, there are some guidelines that will hold for all the different types of dissertations. After all, you don’t put the conclusion before the introduction. Here are the things you need to watch out for:

The stuff before the introduction

Here I’m talking about the title page, the abstract, the acknowledgments and the content pages. Interestingly enough, these are generally the last thing that you’ll get to. At the same time, that does not make them unimportant. Quite the contrary, you see these are the first thing that anybody who opens your dissertation will look at. So you better make sure they’re on the money.

Fortunately, that’s not hard to do, as most of these are just a matter of following the instructions given out by your school. Only the abstract is really more challenging. The most important thing to remember is that it’s not a book cover. It does not leave things to the imagination. Instead, it should summarize everything from the introduction to the conclusion.


Next, comes the bit where you cover the literature. Here you take your central claim and support it with literature from your field. Note that you can use the findings from some other fields, but generally this should only be some of what you’re using. Yes, it is strange that we don’t use other academic fields, but that’s the way it is.

The body

If you’re running an experiment then this is where you get into the methods you used, as well as who participated, what scales you used and so on. After that, you’ll get into the analyses of the data you got.

If you’re writing a literature review then obviously this is where you review the literature!

The conclusion

Here you show which of your hypotheses were supported and which were not. You can write this up as H1: XXXX was supported by XXXX but you don’t have to. Some people find it easier to write in more structurally sound English. It can be quite nice to write this way, through your supervisor has to ultimately agree with how you write this part.

This is also where you get into the discussion. Don’t skimp on this part! The discussion is the last part of what your reader will look at and so it’s important that it’s well written. What’s more, this is the bit of your essay where you get to be the most creative as you get to speculate about what some future findings may be, and if you can’t do it on your own better go and ask some service to write my essay paper for you. So have fun with that.


Everybody hates references. It’s such an annoying thing to write up correctly! For that reason, make sure that you actually download a good referral program. I used one and though it didn’t write my dissertation for me, it sure helped a lot. The reason? When you add a reference in the text, it will automatically be added to your reference list as well (and done so correctly if you put the information in right).

So check out the options out there for referencing software – particularly as most of them are free!

8 Resume Tips for College Students Seeking Internships or Jobs

When college students seek internships, they are, in fact, preparing for better opportunities in the future once they become professionals. The goal is to keep gathering as much experience as possible to make them stand out among hundreds or even thousands of other applicants who will most probably have basically the same level of experience.

The first problem a college student will have to face in order to craft an impressive resume is definitely the lack of content. Your degree and academic achievements are going to be your frontrunner but these are not enough to catch the attention of hiring managers. You have to tap into extracurricular activities that you probably did not know you could include in your resume.

That said, here are the 8 resume tips for college students who are seeking to apply for an internship:

Formatting counts

One of the first things the hiring managers are going to notice is the overall presentation of your resume. Choose a font and size that are readable and neat. Make sure your text is aligned and consistent throughout. Additionally, make sure you edit and proofread your resume more than once to ensure that you did not make any spelling or grammar error.

The industry you want to apply for will also dictate the style of your resume. As an example, if you are applying as a graphic designer, you would want your resume to reflect your artistic and technical skills. You can apply colors and include some graphics. On the other hand, if you are applying as an accountant, you would probably want to submit a minimalistic and sleek resume, in simple black and white.

Highlight your academic achievements

Your academic achievements are almost always going to be relevant when applying next to college students in the same course. It will advance your application especially when the rest of the student body only garnered an average grade. Use this to your advantage by highlighting your grade or honors.

If you are running as a class valedictorian or a consistent dean’s list, make sure to include it in your resume to show the hiring managers that you excel in your batch and that you work hard to maintain your class standing.

Include volunteer work

It is expected not to have a lot of experience as a college student so you will have to tap into your extracurricular activities, which reflect your transferable skills that can potentially attract hiring managers. Volunteer work is a good example. When you volunteer, you can prove that you are able to work with a team and execute instructions.

Volunteer work will also show that you care about the society, and not just on school It will show your flexibility and ability to balance academic and extracurricular work. This type of skill is especially important to hiring managers because it can show that you are able to study and work at the same time.

Include clubs and organizations

Your work at your club or organization is going to be a good source for skills and experience in your resume. Whether it is a leadership role or a project you spearheaded, these are crucial work experiences that can potentially attract hiring managers.

When writing down these experiences, make sure to detail every important information including your role, the number of people involved, or the amount raised. With just one project, you can already show several transferable skills such as leadership, the ability to market, and ability to work with a team.

Use strong verbs

In highlighting any of your academic or extracurricular activity, ensure that you use strong verbs such as spearheaded, managed, or controlled. Do not be coy in your resume because the whole point of a resume is to put yourself in the best light possible.

It is, of course, unethical to lie but words can be very powerful if you know how to maximize them. There is a number of writing tools that you can avail of in order to create an optimal resume that will help you get that internship.

Showcase your problem-solving skills

Put your strong verbs to even better use by expanding your roles in a way that will showcase your problem-solving skills. This is an important part of your resume because hiring managers are looking for interns or employees who can help improve the workplace especially with regard to tasks that appear problematic.

To do this, avoid generalizing your role details and choose an instance wherein your problem-solving skills were crucial to the success of your project. Additionally, do not just include what you did but tell a story about how you did it. In this manner, hiring managers will get to know more about your skills and, consequently, advance your application.

Keep it concise

While it is important to include as much academic and extracurricular activities as possible to compensate for the lack of professional experience, it is also equally important to keep it short. Long resumes tend to be dragging and hiring managers will eventually stop reading on the first page. To avoid having your resume end up in the shredder, make sure to choose only the information that is actually relevant to your job application.

Before you start drafting your resume, make an outline of all the possible academic and extracurricular activities. When you are done, you can start removing those roles that are not important to your job application and which will only make your resume longer than necessary.

Maximize your network

There will be moments when you are unsure where to apply for an internship, especially when you are not yet exposed to the industry of your choice. In this case, you can always tap into your network to help guide you on where to go and who to look for. Start with your family and friends, and expand to their second and third-degree friends.

You will eventually find yourself choosing among their recommendations. When choosing which company to apply for, you have to ensure that you actually know what their business is and if it is at least related to your academic course. Choosing an industry that is related to your course will make your internship relevant to future job applications. Nevertheless, if you have not made up your mind yet as to what you would want to be after college, you can always start by tapping into your passion and other interests.

In Conclusion

Applying for an internship when you are still a college student or applying for a job when you are a fresh graduate is going to be quite tough. You will face a lot of challenges with competing against your batch mates, as a start. This is the reason why you have to bank on both academic and extracurricular activities while still in school.

Submitting a well-crafted resume will have a big role in getting the job so make sure that you do not submit a half-baked resume. Think about it as the first step in fulfilling your life goals so you might as well put in a lot of effort in it.


15 Things That Make College Life Much Easier

From the time you arrive on campus to the day you graduate, college life can be a real whirlwind. Studying, socializing, working, developing good personal habits, setting goals, and keeping your health and money on track can be a real challenge. Add to this the fact that many students are experiencing life on their own for the first time, and stress is inevitable.

The best way to mitigate this is to find as many ways as you can to make your life just a bit easier. The following are fifteen tips that you can implement in your life to reduce stress and enjoy college life just a bit more.

Take Advantage of Easy Classes to Increase Your GPA

During your first couple of semesters, you’ll take several easy classes. These will either rehash what you learned in high school, e.g. Bio 101 or Eng 101, or they’ll be introductory classes. Don’t slack off on these easy classes. Do all of the assignments, ace the tests, and earn those easy A’s. Later, when you’re struggling to get a C in a tough class, you’ll be glad you did.

Never Study in Bed

Yes, it’s comfy and tempting. The problem is that if your brain begins to associate your bed with studying, watching television, surfing the net, or even hanging out with friends, it will stop associating it with sleep. This can lead to sleepless nights and toss and turn.

Use Mint to Keep Your Money on Track

The beginning of college is also the beginning of financial independence for many students. Even if you’re receiving financial help from your parents, you’re still responsible for tracking your spending and sticking to a budget. Mint is a free app that you can use to track spending, pay bills, and keep your bank accounts in the black.

This is a great time to pick up important money management skills. By developing good habits right now, you are ensuring that you are able to deal with your finances no matter what comes your way in the future.

Learn The Ins and Outs of Your Local Public Transit System

There are some schools that still don’t allow underclassmen to bring cars. Even if you can bring a car to school, it might not be cost-effective. Parking fees, gas, and other expenses really do add up. There’s also the environmental factor of driving yourself vs. using public transportation.

Look into buying a metro pass (or whatever they call it in your area). As a student, you might qualify for a discount rate. Then, grab some maps and schedules. You’ll save money. In fact, in some cities, students can ride for free after major campus events. Even better, you can study while someone else does the driving.

Get a Secure Visa or Mastercard to Build Credit Not Debt

If you’re like most students, you probably received your first credit card solicitation when you were still in high school. Hopefully, you avoided that temptation. Too many college students get into real trouble with credit card debt.

On the other hand, the only way to build a good credit rating is to use credit. One way to solve this dilemma is to sign up for a secure credit card. These aren’t debit or gift cards. They are credit cards that you secure with a cash deposit. You use them just as you would a regular credit card, and pay the balance each month. The benefit of doing this is that your responsible use is reported to the credit bureaus each month, and your credit score goes up accordingly.

Save Money on Fees And Use The Campus Gym For Free

If you’ve decided to join a gym, congratulations! College life is full of fun but unhealthy temptations. This is a great way to stay or get into shape. Just do a bit of research before you sign any contracts.

If you want extra perks such as personal training, a juice bar, or group classes, then, by all means, look for a gym that offers those things. Just be prepared to pay for it. On the other hand, if you just want a place to some basic cardio and strength training, check out the facilities on campus. They probably have more than you need.

Eat at Home Whenever Possible

Stopping at the gas station for a bag of chips, running through the drive-through, ending a late night at the local diner; All of these things can add up to big expenses at the end of the month. Do yourself a favor. Learn to grocery shop, and learn to cook.

No oven or stove? Try investing in a crockpot. If that’s not an option, stick with cereal, oatmeal, fruits and vegetables, sandwiches, salads, and wraps. Eat microwave popcorn for a salty snack and sugar-free pudding for something sweet. You’ll have your food budget in no time.

Don’t Wait to Get Academic Help

When you’re struggling academically, it doesn’t take long to go from ‘somewhat behind’ to ‘hopelessly behind’. This is why it’s so important to reach out for help as soon as you know something is off. If you get too far off track, you’ll struggle for the rest of the semester.

If you need help, start with your professor. Then, progress to your student services department to set up some tutoring. One problem many students have is that their writing assignments take up too much time and interfere with studying. Get academic help with those assignments so that you can stay on top of your studies.

Give Each Class Its Own Storage Bin

Those cheap three drawer plastic bins aren’t very useful for storing clothes. However, they are good for keeping papers, notebooks, and other supplies organized. Consider investing in one or two, and dedicating a drawer for each class. This way, all you have to do is grab what you need each day from the appropriate door.

Consider Living in an Academic Dorm

For years, colleges have divided dorms according to lifestyle (married/unmarried, quiet/loud) or gender. Now, many have another option. These are academic dorms where students live with people who are studying what they are.

This can give you the opportunity to live, study, and socialize with people who have similar goals and passions. People who study the same things also tend to have very compatible schedules. This means you’ll be studying, sleeping, and socializing at the same time your dorm mates are.

Download a Safety App

A good safety app provides you with the means to quickly and discretely message people on your contact list if you are in a scary situation. You can also use it to contact the police or campus security. One such app is called Circle of Six.

Check your campus security website. They may have their own safety app or one that is available for free to students. Guys, this advice is for you as well. Staying safe should be everyone’s priority.

Invest in a Quality Backpack

This is more important than you realize. You can spend fifteen dollars once or twice a year for four years and burn through several cheap backpacks. Your other option is to pay sixty dollars once, and have a backpack that you can give to your kids when they start school.

Buy a thick, heavy duty backpack from LL Bean, Lands End, Jansport, or other reputable company. They’re sturdier, comfortable, and better looking.

Sign Up For Rewards And Discount Programs

Take advantage of your status as a college student, and enjoy all of the student discount programs that are available to you. Do a bit of research. You’ll probably find savings on dining out, going to the movies, getting your oil changed, museum passes, transportation, and much more.

Next, check out your local coffee shop, gas station, grocery stores, pharmacies, and electronics retailers. Many have rewards programs or punch cards that you can use for discounts or earn points for free merchandise.

Stay Healthy

Tackle small health problems before they become big health problems. For example, that slightly cold sensitive tooth could become a swollen abscess if you ignore it. That annoying cough could turn into bronchitis or pneumonia.

Be sure you have copies of your health insurance cards. Know the number of your primary care physician. If you’re sick or injured, head to the college health center and things are taken care of.

Coordinate With Your Roommates Before Move-in Day

Reach out to your roommates before school starts. Find out who owns what, and what each of your plans to bring. You may not need three sets of dishes, two television sets, and three microwave ovens. You can avoid a cluttered dorm room by doing a bit of coordinating.


College life is meant to be academically challenging, socially enjoyable, and to act as the bridge to full independence. If you’re feeling stressed or overwhelmed, try to apply some of the suggestions here. Life just might get a little easier.


Top-3 Tips to Involve Large Student Communities to Promote Your Startup

There are a lot of reasons why you want to start your startup at university or soon after. For example, you have access to professors and great facilities. Similarly, you don’t have to worry too much about devoting yourself completely to your startup, as nobody will be too surprised if you pursue something single-mindedly.

And yet, all of those things pale in comparison to what you can get if you know how to get in good with certain student body groups. After all, they’re always looking for the next big things, are connected with other young people across the whole country (And possibly the whole world) and they’re all in close proximity, allowing things to spread quickly.

Of course, knowing that they’re a fantastically useful resource and actually being able to use them are two different things. If you don’t believe me, then I’ve got a plot of land on Venus to sell you.

So how do you get in with student communities?

1. Focus on enthusiasm not followers

A lot of people nowadays get distracted by things like Facebook likes and Twitter followers. The thing is, that’s just a number and not a very helpful one at that. Ten truly enthusiastic fans are more valuable than a 1000 lukewarm Facebook followers. This is because they will share your content, reply to it and interact with it.

So always focus on creating real enthusiasm in a small group of people – preferably people with a bit of social capital. If you can do that, then they will take care of the rest.

Of course, to do this effectively, it’s important that you spend time on your actual fans. So don’t constantly be out there attracting new followers as for when you do this your most invested followers are going to start drifting away. And as they’re the most valuable, that’s a big mistake.

2. Solve a real problem

This one works especially well if you are or just where a student just a short while ago. Find a problem that you really suffered through and then create a solution for that. Chances are that if you had that problem and you felt motivated to do something about solving it, then other students are just as bothered by it and will be just as happy that you created a solution.

And when students are happy to have a solution, they’re very likely indeed to tell their friends about it. And that’s how you create a fantastic word-of-mouth campaign.

“Yeah, that’s obvious,” some of you are no doubt muttering. But is it? A lot of products are solutions to problems that people don’t really want solutions to. And that makes it a useless product. For that reason, when considering your product the first thing you need to consider is, “Was this a real problem or am I just imagining it was because I want my product to succeed?” Use their limited budget to your advantage

You might think that student’s limited budget is a big disadvantage. Of course, for the price of your product, it is. But it’s not all bad news. You see, students are incredibly price conscious, which is something that can be an effectively used to draw them in.

Obviously, you can make your product cheap. This isn’t necessarily the best strategy, however. Often, giving them a discount can also be effective, as we’re a sucker for those (and very bad at the math, besides).

Another great strategy is to make the discount only available to them. This makes them feel like they’re getting special treatment. And we all like to get special treatment. What’s more, if it’s a marked discount, then students can turn into brand advocates as they buy the product from you in droves and then showcase it to others who might be interested in buying it at full price. This is an especially useful strategy to employ right before they go home or on vacation.

A third good strategy is to offer hefty discounts that are only active for a short time. As students are exceptionally vulnerable to the fear of missing out, you can often very effectively get the ball rolling through this strategy. Then others are far more likely to see the product you’re offering and buy it at a higher price.

3. Create student ambassadors

You can take the previous step one step further, by getting students to become ambassadors for the products in return for some kind of price reduction. A good strategy, particularly if they need to pay some sort of monthly fee, is to offer them months for free in return for bringing other students on board.

Another strategy is to take those customers who have shown the greatest enthusiasm for your product and have been the most vocal about their enthusiasm and gift them a free time or free extension as well.

Do this correctly and effectively and you can create students who will actively go out there and proclaim how great your product is. And from there it’s easy indeed to draw in new customers.

Last words

Even though they don’t have that much money, students are a great market. This is for several reasons. For one thing, they’re far more open to trying new things. For another, if you can breed a habit during their college years, you might well create customers who are going to stick with you for life. For that reason, make sure you get them on board. You can do that most effectively by targeting them correctly, which means getting them to think that your product is the next big thing as well as giving them the feeling that they have a special place in terms of that product.

If you can do that, they can draw in wealthier customers and in that way create a very viable marketing strategy. So don’t neglect students. They are the future not just of the world, but of your customer base.